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Gingivitis is the inflammation around the tooth that is confined to the gums and represents the first step in periodontal disease. Gingivitis is reversible and can be treated with cleaning the plaque and tartar that builds up around the teeth and with better oral hygiene. Important for the duration of the treatment and prevention is booking an appointment with the patient for dental cleaning every 6 months.
Periodontitis is inflammation of the gums of microbial etiology which is usually a development of gingivitis and affects all supporting structures of the teeth, i.e. in addition to the gums, the alveolar bone. Specifically, pathogenic microorganisms go deeper under the gums and infect the bone which is being absorbed. This condition is considered irreversible, thus, the best that can usually be achieved is to halt further progression of the disease.
Depending on the severity of the disease, the treatment involves conventional, non-surgical therapy (deep cleaning) which removes the plaque and tartar on the roots of the teeth below the gum. Based on the severity of the disease, the patient enters a personalized monitoring system for the duration of the therapeutic result. Good oral hygiene is also required for the effectiveness of the treatment.
In periodontal problems where conservative treatment is insufficient, surgical treatment may follow. According to the periodontal problem, the surgical treatment may be:
• surgical elimination of periodontal pockets
• surgical crown lengthening
• gingival/bone grafting
• guided tissue regeneration